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Tough cell vs. others

Tough Cell Vs. Geogrids

Geogrid is a 2D geosynthetic product that requires high quality, angular, granular fill, such as gravel as a structural infill for road reinforcement. The difference in the geotechnical 2D structure in comparison to the Tough Cell 3D structure leads to various differences in layer thickness, required infill material and long-lasting durability.

The 3D structure of the Tough Cell diminishes soil movement, therefore creating a larger reinforced zone of influence (~40cm below and above height of the cell walls), providing reinforcement to the surrounding material. The non-cohesive fill achieves characteristics of higher quality fill due to 3D confinement interlocking. Geogrids require a specific angular aggregate with size limitations that are not necessary when using Tough Cell.

Another important difference concerns layer thickness. KOAC-NPC (Netherlands) conducted field trial demonstrations in which Tough Cell was the only geocell tested along with 7 other geogrids regarding thickness of structural pavements. The road base thickness reduction factor (CBR=1.5) for Tough Cell was 0.73 by CROW methodology. None of the geogrids tested have shown a better value. In addition, Tough Cell

Criteria Tough Cell Neoloy Geocells Geogrid
Resistance and Deformation Highly elastic, 3D plane resistance leads to deformation only in very high parameters. Increased bending moment due to single layer depth resulting in better performance under concentrated loads. Limited 2D thin plane resistance. Require a two-layer minimum before gaining minor bending moment resistance.
Sustainability under dynamic loads Structure integrity is maintained. Vertical loads transform to radial loads and become well distributed stress. Very high deformation
Lateral deformation Stiff cell walls confine lateral stress, passive resistance add resistance against a loaded cell resulting is a beam effect with extensive bearing capacity. Lateral expansion limitation is restricted to a very small section
Stress Surface load is distributed evenly through the three-dimensional mattress beam, transitioning only up to 50% of the stress to the subgrade. The load is distributed through a smaller area, causing points of concentrated stress, leading to malfunctions.
Soil 3D structure and confinement improves the soil characteristics, matching them to superior aggregate even when using non-cohesive grained soils. Specific requirements such as high-quality aggregate and grain size are required to obtain stiffness and strength.

Tough Cell Vs. Chemical Stabilizers

Various chemical stabilizers such as cement, lime, calcium chloride, epoxy resin, among others, are used to stabilize soil and prepare it to withstand environmental changes and load challenges, providing a reinforced base for road and pavement construction. The challenge begins when there is a need for a long term solution that will not require large initial capital or frequent maintenance.

Chlorides are most common in soil stabilization, but have compelling downsides; while applying the material, a diluted result or one that is too concentrated will make this solution completely ineffective. Moreover, the corrosive damage to equipment along with a highly toxic damage to the environment make it a costly and rather unsafe solution. Further, the use of chemical stabilizers has a devastating impact on the environment.

Tough Cell ensures a low impact environmental footprint and high structural efficiency. Both are expressed in Tough Cell’s cost-effective proven solution with – unmatchable life span guarantee.

Criteria Tough Cell Neoloy Geocells Chemical Stabilizers
Reliability / Deformation malfunctions Mechanical Stabilization system with high-tensile strength Chemical stabilization system with long-term deterioration
Initial Performance estimation Simple eye assurance- structural verification Chemical mixtures that can have malfunctions undetectable to the naked eye
Life span No mechanical deformities over a course of more than 75 years 60-80% loss of stiffness during life span

Water and Drainage Capabilities

Durable to water changes in soil content, simulates a confined drainage system Very sensitive to water shifts. Becomes unstable under water content changes.
“Green” Structural material with no deterioration, enables use of locally available soils as infill, no waste of precious aggregate Toxic materials that can contaminate soil and water.
Cost Effective Tough Cell Neoloy Geocells Chemical Stabilizers

Tough Cell Vs. Geotextiles

Geotextiles are used across the spectrum in geotechnical engineering applications. In the past, they were mostly common for drainage applications, which subsequently led to the concept of utilizing them in soil separation and for partial reinforcement as well. Geotextiles allow water passage, all while keeping soil particles steady. This function assists in the life extension of pavement surfaces and roads.

Geotextiles 2D structure only provides limited vertical confinement translated to 1-2 times of the infill material average granular size. Tough Cell provides multi-directional confinement, which enlarges the influence zone to 50-200mm, above and below cell height. The differences in bearing capacities make it clear that Geotextiles may be utilized where advantages such as water and drainage capabilities are valued, but load support reinforcement is not an issue. Tough Cell covers it all.

Criteria Tough Cell Neoloy Geocells Geotextiles
Water and Drainage Capabilities Durable to water changes in soil content, simulates a confined drainage system Durable. Allows water flow while containing soil particles
Tensile Strength Higher elastic modulus and high tensile strength – up to 24 kN/m Relatively low tensile strength
Resistance and Deformation Highly elastic, 3D plane resistance leads to deformation only in very high parameters. Limited 2D thin plane resistance

Lateral deformation

Stiff cell walls confine lateral stress, passive resistance add resistance against a loaded cell resulting is a beam effect with extensive bearing capacity. Lateral expansion limitation is restricted to a very small section
Stress Surface load is distributed evenly through the three-dimensional mattress beam, transitioning only up to 50% of the stress to the subgrade. The load is distributed through a smaller area, causing points of concentrated stress, leading to malfunctions.
Resistance and Deformation Highly elastic, 3D plane resistance leads to deformation only in very high parameters. Increased bending moment due to single layer depth resulting in better performance under concentrated loads. Limited 2D thin plane resistance. Require a two-layer minimum before gaining minor bending moment resistance.